​Work package 3

​WP3 aims to develop the low level peripherals of the powertrain, in particular:

• Affordable high performance electric drive (ED) system at the basis of the multi-motor traction system of AMBER-ULV


• Battery Management System with dynamic equalizer.
• The low level control structure managing communication among peripherals and connection with sensor and actuators.


These subsystems will be integrated at a control level in a high level control architecture implemented on a unified control platform. This activity, that include the Traction and Stability Control System (TSCS) and the Regenerative braking System will be then carried out in WP4.


Integration of selected and developed components on the car will be then carried out in WP6.

Electric drives

The activity is aimed to give to the manufacturer the possibility to opportunistically choose the machine type for
both traction and auxiliary drives and to obtain the maximum performance from the chosen machine. This result will be obtained


This objective will be obtained by performing a development activity in two main area: the motor control algorithm and the inverter power stage layout.


The motor control algorithm will be constituted by a unified control scheme which is able to drive several types of electric machines and to exploit the machine capability to obtain the severe features requested by the traction application.


The hardware development will yield to a more integrated power stage of the inverter by using new material and manufacturing technology under development in the industry. This will help to realize an inverter layout with reduced number of parts yielding to higher mechanical strength, lower cost.


The outcome of this research activity will be released for both traction and auxiliary inverter. In this way they will be used in both multimotor traction system and air conditioning motor compressor.

Battery management System

This activity is concerned with the development of a battery and subsystem for the energy storage, and associated models to feed into energy management at a systems level. In particular given the constraints on weight, the efficient operation of the battery pack will be a key focus, with attention to minimize the thermal
loading on the battery pack, and to minimize ageing effects from its operation – and to feedback detrimental operation information to the driver. TNO will provide reduced-order predictive models for the battery pack to be incorporated into the control system, and to feed into the HMI to provide more accurate range prediction.
Additionally information of the categorization of the driver will be used to communicate via HMI as to the effect on driver and possible range improvements should the driver change to encourage efficient operation of the vehicle. These models will link both to optimal regenerative braking within WP4 via charge acceptance, and HMI aspects within WP6.

​Virtual powertrain

The development of a multi-physic powertrain model is a required activity for powertrain component, controls and accessories optimal sizing studies. The structure, component choice and control strategies could be evaluated in the dynamic context of various drive cycles, in any environmental condition, and allowing to take account of thermal and its impact (from performance impact to unfeasibility). Such studies are the unique way to extensively evaluate powertrain efficiency. The multiple electric motor powertrain of the AMBER-ULV vehicle

present several challenges, as in functional terms than in simulation terms.

At functional level, this configuration offers unique opportunities to improve regeneration efficiency (including in steering configuration), but exposes
new challenges in terms of complexity. At simulation level, actual model reductions techniques used for drive cycle level will suffer limitations for such configuration (“partial” control footprint in the reduced model), which implies to develop solutions dealing with.

The developed models are inputs to the WP4 activities.

The tasks within WP3 are:

  • ​Motor Selection
  • Battery Management System
  • Motor control algorithm
  • Inverter layout
  • Powertrain modelling for integration in vehicle model
  • Interfacing for integration of EDs, BMS and other peripherals in the unified control platform
  • Technical Management

​Address

Ce.S.I. Centro Studi Industriali

Research & Development - Advanced Engineering and Simulation

Via Tintoretto, 10; 20093 Cologno Monzese; Italy

​Contact information

Ce.S.I. Centro Studi Industriali

Phone: +39 02-25118098;

Cel: +39 392-9971922;

Fax: +39 02-26707007;

e-mail: maneia@cesi.net

Web: http://www.cesi.net